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R. Browning Consultants is a small business contractor for the National Institute of
Science and Technology (NIST), at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) Brookhaven
National Laboratory.

Since 2009 R. Browning Consultants has been developing a photoelectron microscope for
imaging  advanced engineered materials at the mesoscale. This development effort has
resulted in the creation of a new class of microscope, the vector potential photoelectron
microscope (VPPEM).

Raymond Browning is a NIST Guest Researcher and a member of the NIST Synchrotron
Science Group. He had previously been a director of software engineering at Canon USA,
president and founder of a process control software company (sold to Canon), the CEO of a
CAD software company, and a consulting professor at Stanford University where he worked on
the predecessor microscope to the VPPEM.

He has a D. Phil. in Physics from the University of Sussex, Brighton UK, and a B.Sc. in Physics
from Westfield College, London UK.

He has published approximately 100 journal articles, and book chapters in the fields of surface
science, electron beam/solid interactions, semiconductor lithography, and microscopy. He has
been awarded 7 patents.
US Pat. 8,397,461 Browning et al. 2013 ‘Snap fit pultrusion for housing elements’
US Pat. 8,136,324 Browning et al. 2012 ‘Snap fit pultrusion for housing elements’
US Pat. 7,718,961 Browning 2010 ‘Photoelectron Microscope’
US Pat. 7,608,838 Browning 2009 ‘Electron Optical Component’
US Pat. 7,569,816 Browning 2009 ‘Electron Spectrometer’
US Pat. 7,298,957 Browning 2007 ‘Method for controlling sagging of a power transmission line cable’
US Pat. 6,714,830 Browning 2004 ‘Push-type scheduling for semiconductor fabrication’
R, Browning, (2020) Vector potential photoelectron microscopy instrument design. Ultramicroscopy,
113022. DOI:

R. Browning, (2017) Enhanced spatial resolution in vector potential photoelectron
Microscopy. Journal of Microscopy Volume 267, Issue 2 176-192 DOI: 10.1111/jmi.12558

R. Browning, (2015) Photoelectron Microscopy and HAXPES. In Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
(HAXPES). (ed. by J.C. Woicik) Springer Series in Surface Sciences 59, 533-554 Springer, Berlin

R. Browning, (2015) Vector potential photoelectron microscopy: hyperspectral image processing and
super-resolution applied to images of a Ca–Al alloy intermetallic phase distribution. Surface and
Interface Analysis. 47, 63-76
Recent Publications: